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Spironucleus fish

Spironucleus vortens species is often found in freshwater angelfish, where it affects the gastrointestinal tract and may cause head and lateral line erosion. [4] [3] Pathogenesis of Spironucleus can be promoted by stressful environmental conditions, including poor water quality, malnutrition, overcrowding, and fluctuating temperatures Spironucleus - Hole in the head - Head and lateral line erosion fish disease 1. General description. The parasitic flagellates commonly live in the intestines mucosa of a freshwater fish. The presence of these parasites (their increase, number, etc.) is regulated by the immune system of the fish

Hexamita and Spironucleus (collectively called hexamitids in the current review) are frequently reported in the digestive tract of fishes, and sometimes also in internal organs and tissues. These parasites have direct life cycles, they are difficult to distinguish under the light microscope and some species are associated with morbidity and mortality (diseases known as hexamitosis, spironucleosis and possibly 'hole-in-the head' disease) in salmonids, cyprinids and ornamental aquarium fishes Diplomonads are aerotolerant anaerobic, binucleate flagellates, which are commonly found in the intestinal tract of wild and farmed fish. Of the diplomonad genera, Spironucleus, composed of opportunistic pathogens, poses the greatest threat to aquaculture. Immunocompromised hosts or fish without acquired immunity are thought to be more susceptible to parasitism by these otherwise commensal agents / Spironucleus species : Economically-important fish pathogens and enigmatic single-celled eukaryotes. In: Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development. 2011 ; No. SPEC. ISSUE 2

J Aquac Res Development Current and Emerging Diseases/Disorders of Fish in Aquaculture ISSN: 2155-9546 JARD, an open access journal Citation: Williams CF, Lloyd D, Poynton SL , Jorgensen A, Millet COM, et al. (2011) Spironucleus species: Economically-Important Fish Pathogens and Enigmatic Single-Celled Eukaryotes Hexamita spp and Spironucleus spp are common, small (~9 µm), bilaterally symmetric, flagellated (4 pairs) protozoa most frequently found in the intestinal tract and occasionally in skin lesions or degenerating soft tissues of finfish Spironucleus salmonicida is a species of fish parasite. It is a flagellate adapted to micro-aerobic environments that causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. [2] The species creates foul-smelling, pus -filled abscesses in muscles and internal organs of aquarium fish

Die Lochkrankheit wird durch Flagellaten der Gattung Spironucleus oder Protoopalina hervorgerufen. Unter bestimmten Bedingungen, die noch nicht eindeutig spezifiziert werden konnten, kommt es zu einer massenhaften Vermehrung der Flagellaten, die im Darm der Fische leben Other Spironucleus spp. are of particular importance to aquaculture, as they can cause devastating outbreaks of systemic infections in both ornamental and food fish. In the ornamental fish industry, Spironucleus spp. cause severe infections in several economically important species including cichlids Most common in freshwater fish • Hexamita /Spironucleus are common in cichlids such as angelfish, discus, oscars, and African cichlids. Hexamita salmonis affects salmonids. • Cryptobia: reported in African and Central/South American cichlids; recently reported in juvenile discu Treating Hexamita aka Spironucleus with Epsom Salt Solution This is a rather safe way to treat any newly imported fish, as a prophylactic, just as one would use a de-wormer. It's not only an extremely cheap way to treat fish, the active ingredients are readily available world-wide, and it's also much safer than using most forms of medication

Spironucleus - Wikipedi

In the past, where diplomonad flagellates involved, they were ascribed to the genera of: Hexamita, Octomitus and Spironucleus (Poynton, Sterud, 2002). Table 1 An example of several families of fish (and their common English names) that are affected by pathogenic diplomonads infestations Fritz ParaCleanse treats and controls of a wide variety of parasitic diseases. Use Fritz ParaCleanse for outbreaks of aquatic parasites including velvet (Oodinium dinoflagellates), hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita sp. & Spironucleus), fish lice, or gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus & Gyrodactylus). This treatment is suitable for fresh and saltwater aquariums, and will not discolor the water Spironucleus salmonicida causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. It belongs to the group diplomonads, binucleated heterotrophic flagellates adapted to micro-aerobic environments. Recently we identified energy-producing hydrogenosomes in S. salmonicida

Most of the time, the Spironucleus is responsible for hole in the head disease in fish, whereas Hexamita is known to cause severe intestinal problems. Most Hexamita species are non-parasitic organisms! Not all white feces in fish is a result of Hexamita In the ornamental fish industry, Spironucleus. spp. cause severe infections in several economically important species including cichlids [5,24,40]. S. vortens. has been proposed as the causative agent of hole-in-the-head (HITH) disease, a common condition generally associated with poor husbandry [24]. The disease is characterised by severe lesion

Other Spironucleus spp. are of particular importance to aquaculture, as they can lead to devastating outbreaks of systemic infections in both ornamental and food fish (Williams et al., 2011). These small (typically 10-20 μm in length) parasitic flagellates occur in cold, temperate and tropical waters, and infect a wide range of freshwater and marine fish, as well as shellfish and crustaceans Spironucleus salmonicida causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. It belongs to the group diplomonads, binucleated heterotrophic flagellates adapted to micro-aerobic environments. Recently we identified energy-producing hydrogenosomes in S. salmonicida.Here we present a genome analysis of the fish parasite with a focus on the comparison to the more studied diplomonad Giardia intestinalis Members of Spironucleus are parasitic and can infect a variety of hosts, such as mice and birds, while the majority are found to infect fish. Massive outbreaks of severe systemic infection caused by a Spironucleus member, Spironucleus salmonicida (salmonicida = salmon killer), have been reported in farmed salmonids resulting in large economic. 1.SPIRONUCLEUS PARASITES: What are they? Spironucleus are small (size 10μ [micrometers] or 0.01 mm) flagellates (one-cellular organisms with a flagella) that can often be found in small quantities in the intestinal tract of cichlids. Did you know? They were recently identified as Spironucleus and not as Hexamita Spironucleus torosa from fish; Spironucleus vortens from fish; Containing group: Fornicata. Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window . Scientific Name Spironucleus elegans Comments This species comes from amphibia.

Spironucleus - Hole in the head fish diseas

  1. The Genome of Spironucleus salmonicidaHighlights a Fish Pathogen Adapted to Fluctuating Environments Feifei Xu, Jon Jerlstro¨m-Hultqvist, Elin Einarsson, A´sgeir A´stvaldsson, Staffan G. Sva¨rd
  2. Many parasites live harmoniously in, on, or around fish, but others cause problems such as weight loss and loss of appetite and can lead to death in fry and other young fish. Spironucleus and Hexamita are protozoan parasites that attack the intestines of cichlids, bettas, gouramis, and other aquarium fish. The seriousness of the infection is.
  3. Spironucleus barkhanus isolated from the blood of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from a marine fish farm were genetically compared with S. barkhanus isolated from the gall bladder of wild Arctic.
  4. Spironucleus is a flagellate parasite that affects a large group of fish, including ornamental tropical species. Even though the Spironucleus is responsible for Hole in the head disease in fish ( Head and Lateral Line Erosion), not intestinal disorders like that of Hexamita in fish, It is believed that the Spironucleus causes changes in poop shape and color through inflammation in the small.
  5. Hexamita and Spironucleus (collectively called hexamitids in the current review) are frequently reported in the digestive tract of fishes, and sometimes also in internal organs and tissues. These parasites have direct life cycles, they are difficult to distinguish under the light microscope and some species are associated with morbidity and mortality (diseases known as hexamitosis.
  6. Spironucleus is a diplomonad genus that is bilaterally symmetrical and can be found in various animal hosts. This genus is a binucleate flagellate, which is able to live in the anaerobic conditions of animal intestinal tracts. A characteristic of Spironucleus that is common to all metamonads is that it does not have aerobic mitochondria, but instead rely on hydrogenosomes to produce energy.
  7. Spironucleus salmonicida is a species of fish parasite.It is a flagellate adapted to micro-aerobic environments that causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. The species creates foul-smelling, pus-filled abscesses in muscles and internal organs of aquarium fish.In the late 1980s when the disease was first reported, it was believed to be caused by Spironucleus barkhanus

hexamitosis and spironucleosis of fis

Hexamita spp and Spironucleus spp are common, small (~9 µm), bilaterally symmetric, flagellated (4 pairs) protozoa most frequently found in the intestinal tract and occasionally in skin lesions or degenerating soft tissues of finfish.. Diagnosis. These genera are similar but differ slightly in the position and shape of their nuclei (2 within 1 organism) Some Facts about Hexamita. Because of the facts that Both Hexamita and Spironucleus are one-celled protoza that can cause changes in fish poop shape & color and also the same treatment may be applied to both, Spironucleus species is sometimes incorrectly identified as Hexamita.; Most of the time, the Spironucleus is responsible for hole in the head disease in fish, whereas Hexamita is known to. To date the only diplomonad from fish that has been successfully cultured is H. salmonis (Uzmann & Hayduk, 1963). Overview of Oral Presentation. Studies of angel fish in Europe, using light microscopy have shown that Spironucleus elegans is present in the intestine of the fish (Kulda & Lom, 1964b) This is where the Spironucleus has not been spotted early i.e. the discus has demonstrated a behavioural change indicative; white poo may have been seen on several occasions and the fish may in fact no longer be passing visible excreta; or this is a repetition of a previous case of S. vortens; again has been grossly identified using a compound. Spironucleus vortensfrom angelfish, the type host. Very few other species of hexamitids from fish have been studied with the aid of electron microscopy. These include Hexamita salmonis, Moore 1922, from freshwater salmonids (Ferguson 1979, Poynton & Mor-rison 1990), Spironucleus torosa Poynton and Morriso

T1 - Spironucleus species. T2 - Economically-important fish pathogens and enigmatic single-celled eukaryotes. AU - Williams, Catrin F. AU - Lloyd, David. AU - Poynton, Sarah L. AU - Jorgensen, Anders. AU - Millet, Coralie Om. AU - Cable, Joanne. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/ Foto: JBL. Die Lochkrankheit wird durch Flagellaten der Gattung Spironucleus oder Protoopalina hervorgerufen. Unter bestimmten Bedingungen, die noch nicht eindeutig spezifiziert werden konnten, kommt es zu einer massenhaften Vermehrung der Flagellaten, die im Darm der Fische leben Spironucleus: Spironucleus vortens is reported to be an intestinal parasite in freshwater angelfish. • Cryptobia: Seven species of Cryptobia have been associated with the gastrointestinal tract of fish; only C. iubilans is reported to be pathogenic and parasitic

Other Spironucleus spp. are of particular importance to aquaculture, as they can lead to devastating outbreaks of systemic infections in both ornamental and food fish (Williams et al., 2011). These small (typically 10-20 μm in length) parasitic flagellates occur in cold, temperate and tropical waters, and infect a wide range of freshwater. The fish were removed and placed in a separate, smaller tank with plastic grating covering part of the base and some lengths of plastic piping. is especially common in newly-imported specimens and is thought to be caused by a species of the flagellate genus Spironucleus Fritz ParaCleanse treats and controls of a wide variety of parasitic diseases. Use Fritz ParaCleanse for outbreaks of aquatic parasites including velvet (Oodinium dinoflagellates), hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita sp. & Spironucleus), fish lice, or gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus & Gyrodactylus).This treatment is suitable for fresh and saltwater aquariums, and will not discolor the water Tetra procesează informații despre vizita dvs. folosind cookie-uri pentru a îmbunătăți performanța site-ului, pentru a facilita distribuirea social media și pentru a ofer

Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine Designed as a practical resource, Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine provides an evidence-based approach to the veterinary care of fish. This guide—written and edited by experts in the field—contains essential information on husbandry, diagnostics, and case management of bony and cartilaginous fish.This important resource:Provides clinically relevant. Login / Register 0 Wishlist 0 Compar i personally think everyone should have some of this stuff on hand, the way i look at all the products i use and not just the API General Cure is it's better to have it and not need it then to need it and not have it. Back to Top . Before filing or continuing to prosecute any legal proceeding or claim (other than a Defensive Action) arising from termination of a Covered License, Bandwidth.

Genus of flagellates of birds and of fish. S. meleagridis is synonym to Hexamita meleagridis (6-12 μm, 6 anterior, 2 posterior flagella), Spironucleus spp. from the intestine of fish show the same morphology (Figs. 1 and 2), they parasitize in the intestine and may lead to important losses in ornamental fish cultivation.Transmission occurs via cysts with a size of 4-5 × 6-7 μm This is a cooperation beween Uppsala University, Cell-and molecularbiology and SVA with professor Staffan Svärd as main applicant Representatives of the genera Hexamita Dujardin, 1838 and Spironucleus Lavier, 1936 parasitise in the digestive systems of fish [30, 31]. Some Spironucleus species cause significant aquacultural damage to ornamental and edible fish [9, 17, 29, 30] Spironucleus is commonly seen in discus, but it is also in other fish. When environmental condition deteriorate spironucleus can infect many organs of the fish. The most common symptoms of a severe infection of spironucleus are white translucent feces, fish stop eating, and the fish becomes emaciated

Spironucleus species: economically-important fish

  1. g industry. The strain of S. vortens studied here was isolated from an angelfish and grown in Keister's modified TY-I-S33 medium. A membrane-inlet mass spectrometer was employed to monitor, in a closed system, O2, CO2, and H2
  2. While large water changes is always a good idea with sick fish, that alone will not remove spironucleus vortens from ones system. Expand signature. He who dares not offend cannot be honest. - Thomas Paine. Y. yaajer Feeder Fish. MFK Member. Oct 1, 2007 39 0 6 wisc. Sep 11, 2012 #2
  3. Spironucleus é um gênero diplomonad que é bilateralmente simétrico e pode ser encontrado em vários hospedeiros animais. [1] [2] Este gênero é um flagelado binucleado, capaz de viver nas condições anaeróbias do trato intestinal de animais.Uma característica do espironúcleo comum a todas as metamônadas é que ele não possui mitocôndrias aeróbicas, mas, em vez disso, depende de.
  4. API® GENERAL CURE fish remedy treats a wide variety of parasitic diseases including velvet, fish lice, hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita spp. & Spironucleus), gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus & Gyrodactylus ). For use in both freshwater and saltwater aquariums. This fish remedy will not color the aquarium water. Sizes 10 packets, 30 oz
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  6. Provides Fast Relief From Parasitic Diseases: Velvet Fish Lice Hole In the Head Disease About Fritz ParaCleanse Fritz ParaCleanse treats and controls of a wide variety of parasitic diseases. Use Fritz ParaCleanse for outbreaks of aquatic parasites including velvet (Oodinium dinoflagellates), hole-in-the-head disease (
  7. g agent is designed to remove flatworms and parasites from within aquatic environments and from within the fish themselves. Safe for use on sharks. For oral medication, the powder is mixed dry with fish food, and then bound with some.

reats a wide variety of parasitic diseases including velvet, anchor worm, fish lice, hole-in-head disease (Hexamite spp. & Spironucleus spp.), gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus spp. & Gyrodactylus spp.). For use in both freshwater and saltwater aquariums. This medication will not color the aquarium water Spironucleus vortens is a free living organism although it is also known as a fish parasite and the putative cause of hole-in-the-head disease of freshwater aquarium fish. Spironucleus vortens is another single-celled basal eukaryote like Giardia whose sequence can provide information on eukaryotic evolution

Spironucleus species: Economically-important fish

Spironucleus salmonicida имеет митохондрии-подобные органеллы (mitochondrion-related organelles, MRO), которые содержат белки, гомологичные белкам митосом лямблий. Также в них имеются ферменты, обеспечивающие сборку. The fish are therefore found in different habitat-types depending on the time of year, and the habitats themselves also vary; is especially common in newly-imported specimens and is thought to be caused by a species of the flagellate genus Spironucleus. It is treatable although the recommended medication varies depending on country Spironucleus vortens N.Sp. from freshwater angel fish Pterophyllum scalare: morphology and culture. J. Euk. Microbiol. 42(6): 731-742. 10. Sterud E, TA Mo, TT Poppe. 1997. Ultrastructure of Spironucleus barkhanus N.Sp. (Diplomonadida: Hexamitidae) from grayling Thymallus thymallus (L.) (Salmonidae) and Atlantic salmon Salmon salar L. (Salmonidae)

Bestfish24 — частная рыборазводня, более 280 видов пресноводных аквариумных рыбок разного. Spironucleus salmonicida Lists of aquarium life In fishkeeping, suitable species of aquarium fish, plants and other organisms vary with the size, water chemistry and temperature of the aquarium

hexamitosis and spironucleosis of fishinfectious agent Archives | eClinpathFishelp

ABSTRACT. The diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens causes major problems in aquaculture of ornamental fish, resulting in severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. The strain of S. vortens studied here was isolated from an angelfish and grown in Keister's modified TY‐I‐S33 medium. A membrane‐inlet mass spectrometer was employed to monitor, in a closed system, O2, CO2. Spironucleus is more serious in fry and very young fish. It is not known if this is also true for Cryptobia, but there is some evidence that supports this belief. The impact of either disease on reproduction is not well understood; however, we believe that breeders heavily infected with Spironucleus produce poor quality eggs and weak fry. Diagnosi

Hole-in-the-head (HITH) disease (e.g., Hexamita and Spironucleus species) ParaCleanse contains praziquantel to take care of worms and flukes, as well as metronidazole to kill certain bacteria and protozoans. It is safe for scaleless fish, fish fry, snails, shrimp, and aquarium plants Fish lice appear as tiny, flat, brown/green spots crawling or attached to the fish's skin. Red spots often appear on the skin due to the irritation that the lice cause. Fish with lice are restless and irritable, scratching against hard structures within the tank in an attempt to get rid of the annoying parasites Different species of Spironucleus infect other species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, though this parasite family is not a threat to human health. One notorious member of the. FRITZ PARACLEANSE - EUR 18,98. FOR SALE! Fritz ParaCleanse Provides Fast Relief From Parasitic Diseases: - Velvet- Fish Lice- 40260687801 Some issues like stress affect the immune system of the fish, leading to an increased numbers of certain protozoa like Spironucleus vorten, and those in the Hexamita genus. They affect the intestines first, gradually spreading to the abdominal cavity, gall bladder, kidney, and spleen, resulting in the formation of lesions [3, 4, 6]

Keywords: Spironucleus vortens, fish, antiprotozoal. 166 Med eter 1 7 allium-derived compounds have an inhibitory effect on S. vortens. The economic importance of Spironucleus diseases (36) led the authors to study the effect of aqueous and ethanol plant extracts on the growth of S. vortens About Fritz ParaCleanse Fritz ParaCleanse treats and controls of a wide variety of parasitic diseases. Use Fritz ParaCleanse for outbreaks of aquatic parasites including velvet (Oodinium dinoflagellates), hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita spp. & Spironucleus), fish lice, or gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus &a

How To Treat - There are a few aquarium products which contain praziquantel: Prazipro, API General Cure and Thomas Labs Fish Tapes.Follow the dosing instructions for whatever product you are using. The ingredient in each capsule is Praziquantel 34 mg. For oral medication, the powder is mixed dry with fish food, and then bound with some fish oil. It is the world's first ready-to-use. FRITZ PARACLEANSE PARASITIC Fish Medication 20ct Package Aquarium Fritz Mardel - EUR 25,35. FOR SALE! Fritz ParaCleanse Parasitic Fish Medication 20 count package. One box per buy 17425315721

(PDF) Spironucleus species: Economically-Important Fish

In addition, the flagellates had electron dense plaques at their posterior end, a posterior sac of dense free ribosomes, an electron dense body, and bowl-shaped membranous structures, identifying them as S. salmonis among four Spironucleus species that affect fish. The ultrastructure of the flagellates showed no variations between the two host. The diplomonad Spironucleus vortens is a small, protozoan flagellate, which is the suspected agent of hole‐in‐the‐head disease in cichlids ( Paull & Matthews 2001 ). Spironucleus vortens is related to the ubiquitous diplomonad human parasite Giardia intestinalis and was shown to generate high cell numbers, while sustaining a broad range of temperatures and pHs in vivo ( Sangmaneedet.

This other fish is one of the Black Knights, or a black tetra. As you may notice in the picture, this one also had a bulging belly.However, it was not discolored or asymmetrical like that of the congo tetra. After bringing in both fish, John suggested that it may be Spironucleus, however he did not want to harm the living fish to verify Some Spironucleus species infect piscine species where they cause numerous pathologies (e.g., skin lesions, anorexia, lethargy, abnormal swimming behaviors, and reclusiveness) detrimental to healthy fish rearing and are thus a growing concern for global aquaculture and ornamental fish industries [7,8,9,10] Live Fish; Home; Fish meds; CLOSE. SHOPPING BY: CLEAR ALL. PRODUCT TYPE. COLOR. SIZE. Group. PRICE. VENDOR. TAGS. Fish Meds (7) FILTER. FA Fritz Aquatics Parashield 4 oz. $14.99 FA Fritz Aquatics Coppersafe $10.99. FA Fritz Aquatics Maracyn Oxy $12.99. FA Fritz Aquatics ParaCleanse.

A genomic survey of the fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida indicates genomic plasticity among diplomonads and significant lateral gene transfer in eukaryote genome evolution. BMC Genomics, Feb 2007 Jan O Andersson, Åsa M Sjögren, David S Horner, Colleen A. Millet, C O M., et al. In Vitro Culture of the Diplomonad Fish Parasite Spironucleus Vortens Reveals Unusually Fast Doubling Time and Atypical Biphasic Growth. Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 34, no. 1, 2011, pp. 71-3 348837 - Spironucleus salmonicida: Last modified: August 19, 2020: Genome assembly and annotation i GCA_000497125.1 from ENA/EMBL full: Busco i. OSA Choice provides choice aquarium supplies for marine fish, freshwater aquarium and reef keeping enthusiasts. Free shipping over $75. Offering video support and personalized responses to questions about the marine, freshwater & reef hobby

Hexamita - Fis

N zev p pravku - Pou it Slo en Hikari Metro+ - proti Hexamita a Spironucleus: metronidazol (2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol) ( inn slo ka); s l (NaCl), syntetick polymery a chel totvorn l tky The fish eventually lose their appetite and gradually become emaciated. Often (but not always), lesions appear on the fish's head. Sometimes, these lesions are also apparent on the fish's flanks. Among freshwater fish, hexamitiasis and hole in the head disease most commonly affect perciform fish, particularly cichlid fish - Fish Lice - Hole In the Head Disease. Fritz ParaCleanse treats and controls of a wide variety of parasitic diseases. Use Fritz ParaCleanse for outbreaks of aquatic parasites including velvet (Oodinium dinoflagellates), hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita spp. & Spironucleus), fish lice, or gill & skin flukes (Dactylogyrus & Gyrodactylus) Fish need properly balanced levels of ammonia, pH, high range pH, nitrite and nitrate, these levels can change rapidly and createharmful condition when fish waste, uneaten food or other organic matter accumulate, or when untreated water is added Spironucleus is an important fish parasite: species infect arctic char salmon, and trout, both in the wild and also in fish farms, others parasitise ornamental and aquarium fish, mice and game birds such a s partridge. Again metronidazole is an effective control agent, but potential toxicity towards wildlife have led to restricted use and.

Parasites - Fish

Spironucleus salmonicida - Wikipedi

Treats a wide variety of parasitic diseases including velvet, anchor worm, fish lice, hole-in-the-head disease (Hexamita spp. & Spironucleus spp.), and gill & skin flukes. For use in both freshwater and saltwater aquariums Disrupted intracellular redox balance of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens by 5-nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds MPG-Autoren Kolarich, D. Daniel Kolarich, Biomolekulare Systeme, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society;.

Fish Medication | eBayAPI® | GENERAL CURE™Identifying Diseases and Deficiency Symptoms Before It’sAPI General Cure Anti-Parasitic Fish Medication 10pk